An early history of firefighting ladders
In the early days of firefighting, appliances were often too small to carry a ladder or have them affixed. As such, ladders were carried by the responding firefighters to and from disasters. This created a need for faster response times and longer, heavier ladders, which led to the development of a means of transporting them.
In the United States, early inventions like the ‘Hook and ladder trucks’ from the early 19th century resembled more of a four-wheel wagon drawn by horse, with racks and brackets to store ladders, buckets, etc. These appliances, although effective for their time, failed to pick up any real traction in Sydney. Returning from San Francisco, Andrew Torning, often regarded as the founder of volunteer brigades in New South Wales, attempted to establish a brigade that would primarily assist in the evacuation of fires – going so far as to have a specific truck made for the team in 1878. The unit was referred to as the Hook and Ladder Volunteer Company, or sometimes as Hook & Ladder Co., however, the arrival of the Fire Brigades Act in 1910 resulted in the unification of the Brigade and Torning’s plans were set aside. In the United Kingdom, however, Abraham Wivell’s ladder escapes became reasonably popular. Wivell’s escapes had a 32-35 ft main ladder mounted on a two-wheel carriage with an apron hammock slide chute suspended below, and a 20 ft fly ladder. Additionally, many had a first-floor ladder as well, which gave an extension length of approximately 60 ft.
Later adaptations, such as the Curricle ladder, arrived in Sydney in approximately the late 1800s. The first was a Shand Mason 50 ft curricle ladder, with the company’s distinctive metal trussing. This escape ladder travelled with the head of the ladder at the rear, and the heel pivoting down between shafts. In 1990, the Metropolitan Fire Brigade (MFB; now Fire and Rescue NSW) ordered a Merryweather 45 ft ladder, which featured a ‘sliding carriage’. The style became the standard for the Brigade, with an additional 15 locally made versions placed in service over the subsequent years. Many other designs would come and go throughout the years.
The development of the turntable ladder
The Magirus brand was first established in Germany in 1864 by Conrad Dietrich Magirus, a volunteer firefighter himself, who began constructing wheeled ladders and hand-pumps. In 1904, he created the world’s first engine-driven turntable ladder. In the years to follow, technological advancements allowed for the ladders to be operated directly from the road engine. Wooden ladders were also subsequently replaced by harder, steel or aluminium ladders and later, mechanical drives were replaced by hydraulics and computerised controls.
The first self-propelled turntable ladder was commissioned by the MFB in 1909 which could reach up to 86 ft and imported directly from London. The Brigade tested the ladder thoroughly and were exceedingly happy with the results. A storage battery of 80 cells furnished the power for travelling and extending the three sliding sections of the ladder, while it only required two men to raise the four sections from a horizontal position in a few seconds. Additionally, the ladder allowed for hand-powered control in the event of an emergency, but again, no more than two men were required to handle the ladder.
In the years to come, the Brigade would have a plethora of makers entering the market with turntable ladders. Ladders and their appliances would come from Shand Mason & Co, Simonis & Co, Tilling-Stevens, and many more. Many of these ladders would move from chassis to chassis and be repurposed due to their longevity, however not all ladders and their respective appliances lasted long in the Brigade due to preference or advancements in technology.
The 1985 ME: 804 Iveco Magirus DLK23-12
For some regions, such as Europe and Japan, an additional challenge to firefighting are the narrow laneways, tight confines in built up metropolitan areas, low clearance archways or bridges, and unstable terrain for firefighting appliances. To combat this issue in Europe, Magirus introduced a low-profile appliance in the early 1980s – a 30 metre turntable ladder with a height of just 2.85 metres and a width of 2.35 metres.
The Duetz engine was a V8, air-cooled, diesel engine that was suspended below the chassis rails behind the front axle, with a distinctive low-cab cantilevered off the end of the chassis. Despite the ladder being stipulated as a 30 metre unit, the European ladder classification system described it as a DLK23-12.
Additionally, the appliance possessed a detachable rescue cage with a 180 kg capacity, which was designed to be connected to the head of the ladder if required. The design of the base even allowed the ladder to operate up to 16 degrees below horizontal. Another significant function of these ladders was the ‘Vario’ function, where the base was able to pivot, rather than be fixed rigidly to the chassis. When used in tandem with the jacking system, the ladder was able to compensate for uneven or sloping terrain. The ladder itself is a four-section fully hydraulic ladder with automatic plumbing. Only two levers control the operation of the ladder, which can be carried out from three positions: from the console at the base of the turntable, the cage, and via a hand-held remote. In addition to the above, the low profile ladder consisted of fully adjustable search lights, which were mounted on the roof for night operations, but were also removable.
On 10 March 1983, the New South Wales Fire Brigade (NSWFB; now Fire and Rescue NSW) placed an order for a 30 metre DLK23-12 ladder unit, totalling approximately $350,000 (at the time). Responding to a tender, Wormald International submitted quotes for both a 37 metre and a 30 metre ladder on an Iveco chassis, powered by Deutz air-cooled V8 engines. Whilst the NSWFB reportedly preferred the 37 metre ladder, the DLK23-12 was the only appliance that would fit inside the Manly Station, where it was destined for allocation, so a compromise was made in the DLK23-12. The specifics of the order from Wormald International included:
Magirus DLK-23-12 Vario
Deutz air-cooled V8 diesel
F8L-413F, 12.76 litre, 188 kW @ 2,500 RPM, 815 Nm torque
Allison MT644 gearbox with PTO
The appliance arrived at Manly Station in June 1985, one month after the expected time of arrival. It was numbered the No. 4 ladder, and later the 804.
Almost a decade later, Manly Station had undergone a significant refurbishment, which saw the floor line lowered to accommodate full-sized ladders. The 804 was then reallocated to Darlinghurst Station, where the appliance could be readily utilised for its compact nature within the tighter confines of Darlinghurst. In 2002, the 804 was marked as a reserve and finally was withdrawn from service in January 2007, where it was allocated to the Heritage Fleet with the Museum of Fire.
Interestingly, the 804 was pulled out of service for a small stint with Sydney Airport, who at the time was gearing up for the arrival of the Airbus A390 airliner. To meet new safety protocols, Air Services required appliances that would have a high coverage and arranged to loan two turntable ladders in April 2007 from NSWFB, one of which was the 804. The 804 remained on service at Sydney Airport until October 2009, when it returned to the Museum of Fire.
Contemporary turntable ladders currently in service with FRNSW still range between 30 – 37 metres in height. A number of Magirus ladders are still in service at 11 Station Woolhara and are between 30 – 33 metres in height.
- Story by Museum of Fire Heritage Team